- In 1823 they built their first synagogue.
- Samuel Hirsch was appointed Chief Rabbi in 1843.
- By 1880 there were about 150 families spread all over the land.
- A new synagogue in the city of Luxembourg was built in 1894.
- A new synagogue was built in Esch-sur-Alzette in 1899.
- By the early 1920's the Jewish population was almost 1200 people, many of these refugees from Germany.
On May 10, 1940, Luxembourg a country of Neutrality was invaded by Germany. Of the approximately 4500 Jews of that time about 1000 were able to escape to places such as France and Portugal. Later in the year about 700 fled to America, settling in New York City. The leader of this group was Rabbi Serebrenik. Another thousand escaped to France. Most of those who fled to France, were later deported from there as the Nazi's continued to expand.
Luxembourg was liberated on 9 September 1944. Of that Jewish population prior to the war only about 1500 survived. After the Holocaust about 1500 Jews returned to Luxembourg, many of them merchants coming back in an attempt to rebuild what they once had. In 1953 a new synagogue was built to replace the one destroyed in the war. Today, people disagree on the total number of Jews still living in Luxembourg, however some feel that it may be the only European country to have increased it's Jewish population since the end of the war.